Mood Disorders?

WHAT ARE MOOD DISORDERS?

MOOD or AFFECTIVE DISORDERS:

Major Depressive Disorder. A state of sadness, hopelessness and despair, often accompanied by feelings of worthlessness and pessimism about the future. Clinical depression may last for weeks, months, or even years. It can include psychosis but this is rare.

Bipolar disorder, type I. A disorder characterized by periods of depression alternating with at least one episode of mania — which may include psychosis. Mania is a state of high energy, arousal, and/or elation. It may also involve anger, irritability, and hostility. People experiencing Bipolar I may have more frequent periods of mania than depressive ones.

Bipolar disorder, type II. In this version of bipolar disorder, episodes of depression alternate with periods of hypomania, often described as a less intense version of mania not associated with psychosis but that can be just as debilitating. People experiencing Bipolar II may have more frequent periods of depression than hypomania.

Cyclothymia. A form of bipolar disorder that involves numerous periods of symptoms of depression or hypomania or rapid cycling between moods on a regular basis. The depression and hypomania of cyclothymia are less extreme than bipolar I or II, and moods may sometimes be mixed.

Dysthymia. Similar to major depression but less severe, dysthymia may feel like an extended bad mood. This disorder may make people feel irritable, upset or sad for months or years without relief.

COMPOUNDING ISSUES:

22-43% of people living with PTSD have a prevalence rate of substance use disorders and among the veteran population this rate may be as high as 75%.

30% of individuals with a mood disorder also have a substance use disorder.

44% of people with bipolar disorder report a loss of control (LOC) over eating.

Approximately half of all people with a mood disorder also meet the criteria for PTSD; otherwise stated, people with PTSD are 7-9 times more likely than the general population to have a mood disorder.

50% of those suffering with depression will also experience symptoms of anxiety if not an anxiety disorder.

56% of people with bipolar disorder also have a drug or alcohol problem. 59% of eating disorder patients also have Bipolar disorder, type II.

Up to 80% of anorexics have suffered an episode of major depression at some point in their lives and up to 80% of bulimics have suffered with an anxiety disorder.

ANXIETY:

Generalized Anxiety Disorder. Chronic excessive worry not focused on any one object or situation accompanied by three or more of the following symptoms: restlessness, fatigue, concentration problems, irritability, muscle tension, and sleep disturbance.

Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD). A disorder marked by repeated checking, ritual behaviours, and intrusive thoughts. *NOTE* — OCD is no longer listed in the DSM as an anxiety disorder.

Specific Phobia. Fear and anxiety are triggered by a specific stimulus or situation. Major examples include agoraphobia and social anxiety.

Panic Disorder. Characterized by recurrent, unexpected, panic attacks.

Panic Attack. Sudden period of intense fear that may include heart palpitations, sweating, shaking, shortness of breath, numbness, or a feeling that something really bad is going to happen.

PTSD (formerly “shell shock”). A mental disorder characterized by symptoms such as re-living, reduced involvement with others, and manifestations of autonomic arousal such as hyper-alertness and exaggerated startle response that can develop after a person is exposed to a traumatic event, such as sexual assault, warfare, natural disasters, traffic collisions, surgery, or other threats on a person’s life.

C-PTSD or Complex Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. A proposed diagnostic term for a variant of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) that results from repetitive, prolonged trauma involving harm or abuse, abandonment or neglect by a caregiver or other interpersonal relationship with an uneven power dynamic, such as intimate partner violence (IPV), hostages or prisoners of war, concentration camp survivors, and defectors of organizations considered “cults.”

ADDICTION (Substance Use Disorder):

A condition in which the use of one or more psychoactive substances leads to a clinically significant impairment in functioning or distress.

EATING DISORDERS:

Mental disorders defined by eating habits that negatively affect a person’s physical or mental health. They include:

Anorexia Nervosa. An eating disorder characterized by eating very little and thus having low body weight. Former criteria – amenorrhea and emaciated BMI.

Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder. Not to be confused with anorexia, people with this condition have a lack of interest in food.

Bulimia Nervosa. An eating disorder characterized by binge eating and purging.

Binge Eating Disorder. An eating disorder characterized by frequent and recurrent binge eating episodes with associated negative psychological and social problems, but without subsequent compensatory behaviours/purging episodes (e.g. self-induced vomiting, laxative, diuretic, or enema misuse).

Otherwise Specified Feeding or Eating Disorder (OSFED, formerly ED-NOS, eating disorder not otherwise specified).  A diagnosis that captures feeding disorders and eating disorders of clinical severity that do not meet diagnostic criteria for anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), binge eating disorder (BED), avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID), pica, or rumination disorder.

Purging Disorder. An eating disorder characterized by recurrent purging to control weight or shape in the absence of binge eating episodes that occurs in people with normal or near-normal weight. Purging disorder differs from anorexia nervosa because individuals with purging disorder are not underweight. And, it differs from bulimia nervosa because individuals with purging disorder do not consume a large amount of food before they purge. In current diagnostic systems, purging disorder is a form of OSFED.